the last 100 years of fumed silica in rubber reinforcement.

by:SANDAO     2020-03-07
Degussa has been developing gas phase silica for more than 60 years (ref. 1).
In 1941, Degu began to develop a white filling material for the tire industry as a replacement for carbon black filling materials that can only be produced by oil.
Aerosil was registered as a trademark of forussa gas phase method silica on 1943.
During the same period, polysilicone materials were produced by a joint venture between Coming Glass and Dow Chemical in early 1940.
Degussa developed different grades of hydrophilic gas phase method silica in 1940 s, followed by the hydrophobic gas phase method silica treated with dichlorone (DDS)
At 1960 s and West Latan (HMDS)
And Poly Dione (silicone oil)inthe 1980s.
The development of silica modified with eight-poly-ring four-Silicon ketone by hydrophobic gas phase method (D4)
It was established in early 1990.
From 1990 s to the present, the gas phase method silica modified by structure is introduced.
In the following sections, the application of these grades of gas phase method silicone in silicone rubber and MRG rubber will be discussed in detail.
Production of gas phase method silica (
Silicon Stone)
The process, so called Aerosilprocess, was the first patent in Harry\'s Degu Kloepfer on 1942 (ref. 2).
Gas phase silica is produced by continuous flame hydrolysis of silic Silicon (Si[Cl. sub. 4])
The tetroloride silicon reacts with hydrogen and oxygen through it in a reactor burner with a temperature greater than 1,000 [degrees]C (ref. 3).
The reaction is as follows :【
Mathematical expressions that cannot be reproduced in ASCII][
Figure 1 slightly]
A considerable amount of heat is released in this chemical reaction, which is reduced on the cooling line.
A by-product is hydrogen chloride, a gas separated from a gas phase silica solid substance.
The gas phase method silica obtained is a white amorphous powder with a particle size of 7 to 40 nm, BET (Brunauer-Emmet-Teller)
Surface area from 50 to 400 [m. sup. 2]/g.
Primary particles do not exist in an isolated state, but are formed in the form of chains
Like, a branch-like aggregate formed by the fusion of spherical primary particles.
The reunion is formed by the collision of the aggregate.
The surface of the gas phase method silica consists of three-
Size network of silicone base (-Si-O-Si-)
And Silicon alcohol group (-Si-OH)
On the surface of silica.
Molecular Simulation of Si-reactive silicon
OH density is about 1. 7 Si-OH groups/[nm. sup. 2]
As can be seen in Figure 1.
Water can be absorbed and interacted with the silicon oxygen base;
Therefore, the gas phase silica has the hydrophilic properties and can be soaked in water.
Modification and physical properties of silica by gas phase method
The chemical properties of the hydrophilic gas phase method silica can be treated by different chemicals (such as silicon, silicone oil and functional silicon), resulting in the generation of the hydrophobic and/or functional surfaces of the gas phase method silica
In addition to the surface modification, the gas phase silica can also be structurally modified in the process.
Table 1 shows various types of silica for surface and structural modifications of EvonikDegussa, which can be used in silicone and MRG rubber. Theirphysico-
Chemical data are also included.
With the exception of Aerosil OX50 and Aerosil 90, all gas phase method silica grades will be checked in this article. Hydrophobic vs.
The surface activity of the hydrophilic gas phase silica is shown in figure 2.
Untreated gas phase silica (hydrophilic)(
Figure 2 on the left)
Three can be formed-
Due to the development of strong hydrogen bonds, the size network usually produces poor thickening properties and creep hardening effects of silicone products.
To avoid these problems, silica gel or in-
It is recommended to use silicone for in-situ treatment of silica by hydrophilic gas phase method.
Surface of silica by hydrophobic gas phase method (
Figure 2 on the right)
Low hydrogen bond interactions are shown because the oh base on the surface of the hydrophilic gas phase silica is replaced by dipolysilicone ([D. sub. 4]or DDS).
The degree of displacement controls the degree of drainage of the surface-treated silica.
Silicon-based Three (HMDS)
And second sulfur silicone (PDMS)
Can also be used to replace the oh base.
Compared with the hydrophilic gas phase method, the water adsorption of the hydrophobic gas phase method silica is greatly reduced. [
Figure 2:
Gas phase silica can also be treated with dual-functional silicon, introducing functional groups such as vinyl, methyl, epoxy and amino groups on the surface to enhance silica-
Polymer interaction.
These silica products will not be discussed in this paper.
The Aerosil gas phase silica process is also used to manufacture gas phase oxide such as titanium dioxide or alumina.
The commercial name of Evonik Degussa \"titanium oxide under air oxide Ti []\"O. sub. 2]
P25 and Aeroxide Ti 【O. sub. 2]
PF2 can be used in combination with other additives as a thermal stabilizer in silicone rubber.
Details of the burning titanium dioxide can be found in the literature (refs. 4 and 5).
The gas phase method silica silicone rubber in silicone rubber is polysilicone, where the polymer skeleton is composed of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms and is attached to an organic base on silicon.
Silicone rubber has different categories according to ASTM D1418: MQ (
Methyl substituents), VMQ (
Methyl vinyl replacement base), PMQ (
Replace base), PVMQ(
Vinyl replaced base), and FVMQ (
Fluorine, vinyl and methyl substituents).
According to the curing mechanism and curing conditions, silicone rubber can also be divided into three categories: Hot curing type or high curing type
Temperature vulcanization (HTV)rubber; room-
Temperature vulcanization (RTV)rubber;
Solidified liquid material (
Liquid silicone rubber (LSR)(refs. 6and 7).
The advantage of silicone rubber is that the temperature of use is very wide (-100 to 250[degrees]C)
Good electrical insulation, excellent resistance to oxygen, ozone and sunlight erosion, high optical transparency and good biological compatibility.
However, the vulcanization strength of silicone rubber is low (
1 MPa at cross-linking)
And poor hydrocarbon oil and solvent resistance.
In order to improve the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulation strength and tear strength, fillers such as gas phase silica or precipitated silica are often required in silicone rubber.
Gas phase silica is the most common reinforcing filler in silicon fiber.
In silicone applications, such as RTV sealing materials and insulation materials in wires/cables, gas phase method silica provides the advantage of excessive precipitation of silica due to low moisture and high purity.
Table 2 comparison physics
Chemical properties of gaseous silica and precipitated silica (refs. 3 and 8).
The moisture content and silicon alcohol family density of gas phase silica are less than that of precipitated silica.
Gas phase method silica not only has enhanced properties, but also has the necessary flow properties (thickening)
Optical Performance Control (transparency)
Electrical insulation performance of silicone rubber.
Because silicone rubber has many advantages, there are many applications of silicone.
HTV and LSR used in the automotive industry include shaft seals, spark plug caps, o-
Rings, washers, ignition cables, and coolant and heater hoses for buses and trucks.
Silicone is also used in the Corona-
• Resistant to insulating tubes, keyboards and contact pads and blood transfusion and dialysis tubes.
RTV rubber is widely used in seal and caulking and flexible mold manufacturing applications (ref. 6).
In this silicone section, only the gas phase method silicone was studied in htv, LSR and RTV.
In the next MRG section, the precipitated silica and carbon black will be compared with the gas phase silica.
All the fillers tested in this article are shown in Table 3.
Gas phase method silica in HTV studied the effect of BET surface area of hydrophilic gas phase method silica on The vulcanization performance of HTV compounds (ref. 9).
The surface area of BET is 130-hydrophilic gas phase silica300[m. sup. 2]
/G check in peroxide-
Curing HTV formula shown in Table 4.
The HTV compound is in two-
Rolling at room temperature, vulcanization at a temperature above 100 [degrees]C.
In 200 [six hours of healing]degrees]
C in the loop airoven.
Under the equal filling load, the tensile strength increases with the increase of the specific surface area.
The tensile strength decreased at about 200 [m. sup. 2]
/G bet, as shown in figure 3.
This is due to the fact that, at a higher surface area, the hydrophilic gas phase silica is not completely dispersed in the silicone matrix.
Use additional processing additives (
Oh-based silicone oil)
The tensile strength can be further improved.
Silicone oil plays a role in the hydrophobic effect of gas phase silica, resulting in better polymer-
Fracture elongation and hardness are also affected by bet surface area (Figures 4 and 5).
Tear resistance increases with the increase of BET surface area, as shown in figure 6.
In order to obtain good tear resistance, it is recommended to use gas phase silica with higher specific surface area.
In addition to the hydrophilic silicone, the different grades of the hydrophilic silicone in table 1 and Table 3 were also studied in HTV formulations containing 6 phr processing additives, as shown in Table 4 (ref. 10).
Silica gel, Aerosil 200 (
[Bet area 200]m. sup. 2]/g)
, Hydrophobic sil R 974 (
About 200 [initial BETsurface area]m. sup. 2]
/G treated with DDS silicone)
Hydrophobic sil R 104 and silica (
Initial bet surface area]m. sup. 2]
/G treated with D4 silicone)were evaluated.
It can be seen from Figure 7 that Williams plasticity is a method of measuring viscosity, and its value in hydrophilic silicon-containing compounds is higher than the value of hydrophobic silicon-containing compounds.
The higher viscosity is due to the strong filler-
The filler interaction of silicon alcohol-based hydrogen bonding on the surface of silica by hydrophilic gas phase method.
This hydrophilic silicone
The compounds containing silicone become stiff and difficult to process in a few days.
This effect is also known as \"hardening of crepes \".
\"Thehydrophobic gas phase silica, which helps to prevent wrinkles from hardening and silicone compounds at the processing cost of eticesthe for comparison,situtreatment (
Silicon treatment in a composite process above 100 [degrees]
C a few hours).
Products, such as hydrochloric acid or other products due to the following reasons
In the case of the use of a hydrophobic gas phase method of silica, the field treatment of DDS or HMDS is not required. [
Figure 3 slightly][
Figure 4 slightly]
In Figure 8, the tensile strength of the two hydrophobic silicone-containing compounds is slightly higher than that of the hydrophilic silicone-containing compound.
The breaking elongation and hardness of these three compounds are 400% and 60 of Aerosil 200 compounds, 400% and 55 of Aerosil R 974 compounds, and 500% and 53 of Aerosil R 104 compounds.
Reduction of filler-
Due to the hydrophobic, the packing network causes the hardness to decrease and the breaking elongation to increase. [
Figure 5 Slightly][
Figure 6 slightly]
Gas phase method silica in LSR liquid silicone rubber (LSR)
By two-
Platinum (addition)
Curing System, can be injection molded and cured at very fast cycle time at high temperature.
Two components, (
Sierra Leone polymer containing vinyl, fillers, platinum catalysts and inhibitors)and B (
Silicone polymer containing vinyl, filler and chain Agent containing silicone hydrogenation base)
It is usually necessary to mix in a 1:1 ratio.
The viscosity of LSR is lower than that of asolid silicone rubber (HTV).
The curing vulcanization mechanism added is based on the hydrogen addition reaction under the catalysis of very small Pt compounds.
Unlike Peroxide curing, products released by LSR during vulcanization.
The filler used in the LSR compound should provide high enhanced and low flow properties.
In some lsr applications, optical properties such as transparency are also required.
Gas phase silica has high mechanical properties and transparency.
Precipitated silica is used for products such as keyboards that require a low compression set.
In this section, the two grades of silica by the hydrophobic gas phase method, Aerosil R 8200 (
Structural modified gas phase method silica with initial BET surface area of about 200 [m. sup. 2]
Processed with HMDS
And Aerosil R 812 S (
Initial BET surface area of about 300 [m. sup. 2]
/G processed with HMDS)
The survey was conducted in the LSR formulation in Table 5 (ref. 11).
Aerosil R 8200 gas phase method silica is not only treated by water or HMDS, but also structurally modified by additional processing steps.
Aerosil R812 S gas phase method silica is hydrophobic or treated HMDS, and its three-layer silicon-based chemical reaction occurs on the surface of the gas phase method silica.
The lsr formula tested is-
As used in practice, component systems are easier to handle than two components. [
Figure 7 Slightly][
Figure 8:
As shown in Figure 9, the viscosity will increase as the filling amount increases.
The maximum load of LSR compounds containing Aerosil R 8200 to maintain low viscosity is higher than that of LSR compounds containing Aerosil R 812 S (
AerosilR 40% Mount vs. 8200
30% loading of Aerosil R 812 S).
Figure 10 and Figure 11 show mechanical properties such as tensile strength and tear strength, respectively.
With the increase in the filling amount of the two gas phase method silica grades, both their tensile strength and tear strength are increased.
The Aerosil R 8200 compound under 40% load has higher tensile strength and tear strength than the Aerosil R 812 S compound under 30% load.
Under these loads, the hardness of the two compounds is equivalent (~62).
This shows that the special structural modifications and lower surface area of Aerosil R 8200 allow Aerosil R 8200 compounds to maintain low viscosity at higher loads, and remain in comparison with Aerosil R 812 s compounds[
Figure 9 omitted
Recently, Evonik Degussa has also developed a new level of structure --
Transparent properties of silicone rubber enhanced by modified gas phase silica (ref. 12).
These new grades are called Aerosil 200 SP (
[Bet area 200]m. sup. 2]/g)
And Aerosil 300 SP (
BET area 300 [m. sup. 2]/g).
Through proprietary processes, the structure of the gas phase method silica aggregates and reunions is changed without affecting the average particle size.
This process results in easier dispersion of particles and lower thickness (viscosity)
Effects in silicon fiber systems. [
Figure 10 slightly][
Figure 11 omitted]
The transparency of silicone rubber is directly related to the surface area of the gas phase silica.
As shown in Figure 12, transparency increases as the surface area increases.
However, on a higher surface above 400 [the higher transparency of the conventional hydrophilic gas phase method silica is suppressedm. sup. 2]
Because dispersion becomes difficult.
The development goal of SP gas phase method silica is to improve transparency or clarity without increasing the surface area.
It can be seen that under similar surface areas, AerosiL 300 SP has higher transparency than Aerosil 300.
The same effect can be seen in Aerosil 200 SP versusAerosil 200.
It should be noted that the SP gas-phase silica gel can enhance silicone rubber similar to the traditional gas-phase silica gel.
Gas phase method silica in RTV silicone sealing compound, gas phase method silica is a recommended substitute for precipitated silica.
This is because the type of vulcanization used is Moisture curing, and the high moisture content in precipitated silica may affect the vulcanization process.
In addition to the enhanced properties, other quality properties of silicon materials, such as processing properties, dispersion (
Surface smoothness
Shelf life is very important.
Figure 13 shows the yield point asa function for storage time of different alcohol oxygen-
Cured silicone sealed compound.
These RTV compounds contain hydrophilic Aerosil 150 (150[m. sup. 2/g]BET)
, Hydrophobic sil R 972 (
DDS Silicon treated on 130 [m. sup. 2/g]fumed silica)
, Hydrophobic sil R 974 (
200 [surface treatmentm. sup. 2/g]fumed silica)
And Aerosil R 106 (
D4 [processed [m. sup. 2]/G gas phase silica gel).
The silicone loading capacity used is 10%.
The yield point is the yield stress required to make the uneven material flow.
Resistance properties of this depression (
Ability to keep in place before applying small force)
This is especially important for sealing materials that are applied to a vertical surface or surface that can be recessed under its own weight.
However, when the sealant is applied to the surface, the yieldpoint should not be too high to cause the sealant to flow.
In Figure 13, at a given storage time, the hydrophilic Aerosil 150 sealing compound showed the highest yield compared to the other grades of the hydrophobic silica.
The longest storage time (56 days)
, Compared to a day later, the eleldpoint of the Aerosil 150 sealed compound was increased at the highest level.
However, even for longer storage times, hydrophobicfumed silicone of all grades showed lower yield points, resulting in a longer shelf life.
This can be explained by the fact that the wet adsorption capacity of the hydrophilic gas phase method silica is much higher than that of the hydrophobic gas phase method silica and causes the filler-
Fill the network in the stored procedure to get high-yield points. [
Figure 12:
The gas phase method silica precipitation silica in mechanical rubber products accounts for most of the silica materials consumed in rubber applications, including tires, mechanical rubber products and footwear.
In mrg applications, silica is usually not used by gas phase method;
However, in this section, various types of gas phase method silica are studied in different rubber compounds (such as HNBR, FKM, and br/IR mixtures, to reveal that the precipitated silica and carbon black containing compounds will be compared in these rubber.
Gas phase method silica in hydrogenation styrene-butadiene rubber (HNBR)
HNBR rubber is resistant to heat, oil, chemicals and ozone.
They have high mechanical properties and wear resistance.
Their main areas of application are automotive, mechanical engineering and the petroleum industry.
The automotive market is the largest consumer of HNBR for dynamic and static seals, hoses and belts.
The hnbrs containing different fillers under 60 loads were studied with Friehmelt (ref. 13).
In this article, densisil 200 (
[Bet area 200]m. sup. 2/g])
, Densisil R 974 V (
Initial bet surface area]m. sup. 2]
/G processed with DDS)
Experimental precipitation of silica (
[Bet area 250]m. sup. 2/g])
And carbon black (
The specific surface area is 120 [n2 34]m. sup. 2/g])
The examination was carried out in the HNBR formula containing 40 filler loads, as shown in Table 6.
Unmodified experimental precipitation of Mooney viscosity of silica and Aerosil 200 pairs of compounds (140 and 158)
Higher than Aerosil R 974 V and n2 34 compounds (95 and 87).
The hardness of the experimental precipitated silica and Aerosil 200 is 80, while the hardness of Aerosil R 974 V and n2 34 is about 69.
Strong Silicon-
The silica network for experimental precipitation of silica and Aerosil 200 VS can be attributed to high Moon and stiffness. The stress-
The strain curves in figure 14 show that Aerosil 200 VS compounds have higher tensile strength and higher modulus than experimental accuracy, silica and Aerosil R 974 V compounds.
TheN234 and Aerosil 200 showed considerable and highest reinforcement compared to compounds.
Figure 15 shows the tear strength, and the n2 34 compound shows the lowest tear strength compared to the gas phase method and the precipitated silica compound.
High tear strength of silica compounds may be attributed to strong silica-
Silica networks and smaller primary granularity. [
Figure 13:The filler-
The packing network can be characterized by dynamic shear modulus at small strain.
Due to the rupture of the packing network and the loss of the friction chain in the packing, the shear modulus decreases with the increase of strainfiller network. This small-
Strain softening phenomenon is called Penn effect, which is defined as the difference in shear modulus G * at low strain and high strain (delta G*)(ref. 14).
Figure 16 shows the Penn effect of the different filler vulcanization HNBR compounds measured with the rubber process analyzer (RPA).
Silicone with hydrophilic phase method (Aerosil 200 VS)
Provide the highest degree of Penn effect (delta G*)
, And Delta G * of hydrophobic smoke Silicon *(Aerosil R 974 V)
Decrease at almost the same level as carbonblack (N234).
This indicates the filler-
Compared with the hydrophilic gas phase method silica, the packing network formed by the hydrophobic gas phase method silica due to hydrogen bonding is reduced.
Decomposition of packing-
Lag loss caused by filling network under dynamic deformation (
Measured by tan delta).
In Figure 17, tan δ at a high strain of n2 34 and hydrophobic gas phase method silica (Aerosil R 974 V)
The compound is lower than that of unmodified precipitated silica (
Experimental precipitation of silica)
Silica gel with hydrophilic gas phase method (Aerosil 200 VS)compounds.
Because Silicon
The silicon network of the hydrophobic gas phase method silica is reduced, the energy required to decompose the net work under deformation is reduced, compared with the hydrophilic gas phase method silica and the unmodified precipitated silica, resulting in a low tan delta.
The N2 34 compound shows the minimum amount of filling-
The packing network and the lowest tan δ in this HNBR formula. [
Figure 14 omitted][
Figure 15 omitted][
Figure 16 omitted]
In applications where heat resistance is required, hydrophilic and hydrophobic gas phase method silica and precipitated silicon compounds have better performance than carbon black compounds.
As shown in Figure 18, the percentage changes in the experimental precipitation of silica, Aerosil 200 and andAerosil R 974 V, the tensile strength, breaking elongation and hardness of the compound are lower than those of n2 34 compounds.
Regarding the waterproof performance, the volume expansion in the water is measured, as shown in Figure 19.
Gas phase silica containing hydrogen (Aerosil R 974 V)
N2 34 provides the lowest volume expansion in water compared to unmodified precipitated silica (
Experimental precipitation of silica)
And hydrophilica (Aerosil 200 VS).
Aerosil R 974 V helps prevent the adsorption of water.
Gas phase method silica in fluorine rubber (FKM)
FKM rubber is either a binary polymer of partial dibenzene and six fluorine propylene (VDF/HFP)
, Temary polymer (terpolymers)
Fluorine fluoride containing fluorine, propylene and fluorine (VDF/HFP/TFE)
Or four polymers that also contain cure
On-site single unit, allowing over-oxide curing.
FKM rubber used as o-
Packing for aerospace industry and seals for automotive industry (ref. 6). [
Figure 17 slightly][
Figure 18 slightly]
Hot Black and other fillers (N990)
It is usually used for influoroelastmers. For many o-
Application of the ring, it is necessary to specify that the fluorine rubber seal has different colors to avoid errors when installing the seal in the automotive industry.
Mineral fillers are usually contained in the MSDS.
Some mineral fillers, such as precipitated calcium carbonate, partial Silicon calcium, silica Earth, precipitated Lithium sulfate and titanium oxide of gold, can be used for FKM compounds compared to carbon black fillersref. 15).
Compared with carbon black, the gas phase silica can also be used in FKM enhanced materials (ref. 16).
Table 7 shows the formulation of peroxide
Cured FKM compounds containing carbon black (N990)
Silica and silicone rubber treated with silicone oil (Aerosil R 202)
As well as the hydrophobic gas phase method silica treated with silicone and DDS (Aerosil R 972). N990 has 8 [m. sup. 2/g]
BET surface area, while the two grades of silica are 100-110 [m. sup. 2]/g.
As shown in Table 8, the hardness of all compounds is equal.
However, the tensile strength and breaking elongation of AerosilR 202 and Aerosil R 972 compounds are higher than those of n990 compounds.
Compared with N990 and Aerosil R 972, Aerosil R 202 has the highest tensile and fracture elongation and high modulus.
This indicates that the polymer-
The filler interaction between Aerosil R 972 and fkm is high, resulting in the highest degree of strengthening of this fkm compound.
In the BR/IR mixing formula for sole application, different grades of gas phase method silica and precipitated silica (table 9).
Two density grades of hydrophilic gas phase method Silicon, Aerosil 200 and Aerosil 300 (
[Bet area 200]m. sup. 2]/g and 300 [m. sup. 2]
Evaluated in conjunction with two grades of precipitated silica, Sipernat 200 (
About 200 [BET surface area]m. sup. 2]/g)
And ultrasound 7000 GR (
About 170 [BET surface area]m. sup. 2]/g). [
Figure 19 Slightly]
As can be seen from table 10, the Mooney viscosity of the gas phase method silicone containing Aerosil 200 VS and Aerosil 300 VS is higher than the precipitation containing Ultrasil 7000 GR and sipernat 200The filler-
The packing network in Aerosil 300 VS shows the most significant effect as shown in the highest Meni viscosity. Thestress-
The strain behavior of these BR/IR compounds in figure 20 shows that the two gas phase silica compounds (
AndAerosil Aerosil 200 VS 300)
Higher tensile strength and modulus than precipitated silica compounds (
GR sil 7000 GR and Sipernat 200).
Apart from Aerosil 300 VScompound with the highest breaking elongation, the breaking elongation of all compounds is comparable.
The slight enhancement of gas phase silica compounds may be attributed to the high dispersion of gas phase silica in these compounds, which is also evident in higher wear and transparency (table 10). [
Figure 20 omitted]
To sum up, the gas phase method silica can be used for many rubber applications.
Gas phase silica gel of various grades (
Hydrophilic, hydrophobic and structural modification)
It has been developed and can be selected according to the requirements of rubber properties.
Due to its unique properties such as high purity, low water content and small particle size, gas phase silica provides a significant enhancement in rubber compounds (
Large surface area)
And excellent dispersion.
In silicone rubber, the gas phase method Silica improves the flow control, enhancement, transparency and high electrical insulation.
In natural fibers such as FKM, HNBR and BR/IR, gas phase method silica not only provides enhancements in tensile strength, tear resistance, wear resistance and dynamic properties, but also inhydrophobic)
Heat-resistant aging and transparent. References (1. )
The improvement of Aerosil\'s invention won the company. (2. )DPB 762,723.
Degussa AG, 1942 (3. )
The basic properties of Aerosil, Technical Bulletin No. 11, FineParticles.
Degosa company(4. )
Titanium dioxide P25-Manufacture-Properties-
Evonik Degussa Corp. 80 fine particle technology announcement(5. )Aeroxide Ti[O. sub. 2]
Effective thermal stabilizer for PF2 silicone rubber, technical information, no. 1218, Evonik DegussaCorp. (6. )Brydson, J. A.
, Professional rubber, Rapra review report, roll 7, No. 2,1994. (7. )Jerschow, P.
Volume 2001 Rapra Review Report No. 12. (8. )
Wypych, George, packing Manual, Version 2nd, ChemTechPublishing, 1999. (9. )HTV-
Evonik Degussa Corp. 12 technical announcement pigment silicone rubber(10. )
Aerosil R104 and Aerosil R 106 for silicone rubber applications, technical information, TI 1148, Evonik Degussa Corp. (11. )
Oxygen and oxygen for liquid silicone rubber (LSR/ LIMS)
, Technical data, Ti1253, win the record company. (12. )Conn, R. Schumacher, K. , Meyer, J. and Scholz, M.
The world of rubber, silicon rubber, in June 2008, synthesized silica to improve clarity. (13. )Friehmelt, R.
July 2009, IRC, Nuremberg, fireworks silica in rubber applications. (14. )Payne, A. R. , Whittaker, R. E. , Rubber Chem. Technol. 44, 440,1971. (15. )Moore, A. L.
, William Andrew Publishing House, 2005, manual for fluorine rubber, manual for defining users and data. (16. )Michel, W.
Deged Silicon Enhanced elastomer, deged, August 2007.
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