joining plastics: advanced adhesives and welding technologies produce strong bonds.

by:SANDAO     2020-03-24
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Adhesive and solvent bonding, mechanical fastening, and various welding techniques are used to connect plastic parts and sub-assemblies that are too large or too complex to be produced as a single assembly.
Adhesive bonding systems are widely used to produce consistent, predictable results in joints that require strength and durability.
Welding is only suitable for thermoplastic materials, not thermoforming materials, melting the materials at the interface of the joint to form a strong molecular bond.
Welding technology is widely used in the packaging industry to seal packaging.
Plastic welding and adhesives are widely used in the automotive industry. [
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Expert technical support resin manufacturers provide advice and technical support for connecting and assembling parts made from their materials.
In the design guide for joining engineering plastics, Lanxess pointed out that designers need to consider how to add supporting components to functional units early in the development phase.
Mechanical fasteners, including screws, bolts and rivets, provide a cheapest and most commonly used method of connection for components that must be disassembled.
For permanent bonding, solvents and adhesives are one of the cheapest ways to connect, Langsheng noted.
For bonding, two
Some epoxy and polyurethane adhesives have excellent adhesive strength. Cyanoacrylate-
Fast bonding can be generated based on adhesives, but they can damage pc resin, especially if the parts have a high level of molding
Design guidelines say in and/or applied stress. Two-
Some acrylic adhesives usually have a high bond strength, but some of their accelerators may damage the PC mixture.
Lanxess suggests that all components should be prototyped and tested to determine the suitability of a given adhesive.
Plastic can be welded using mechanical motion such as vibration or external heating to melt in the interface area of the joint.
Ultrasonic assembly is one of the most widely used connection technologies for thermoplastic plastics, which can produce permanent, beautiful joints. High-
In the most common ultrasonic technology, frequency mechanical vibration is used to melt the mating surface: welding, spot welding and ultrasonic inserts.
A small amount of filler such as fiberglass does not inhibit welding, said Langsheng.
If the glass content is more than 30%, it will lead to poor adhesion and will cause wear and tear on the welding device.
Some external molds
Mold release agents, lubricants and flame retardant can also have a negative impact on the quality of welding.
Sabic Innovative Plastics noted in the plastic welding manual that vibration welding is also known as linear welding and Linear friction welding, and is ideal for welding thermoplastic parts along flat joints.
In this process, the parts to be connected rub against each other under pressure.
Commercial vibration-
The welding machine, the moving half of the part to be welded, inspires tuning, rigid springs, and mass system vibration through the oscillating force applied externally.
Other types of friction welding include rotary welding, angular vibration welding, and rail welding.
Sabic observed that plastic and plastic composites are increasingly being used in complex structural components where connectivity considerations and costs are very important.
Weldable and unfilled thermoplastic resins are required in many demanding structural applications to be able to withstand both static and fatigue loads.
Sabic first gave an example --8 km/h plastic (5 mph)
The car bumper is made of Sabic\'s Xenoy @ 1102 resin, an unfilled thermoplastic mixture developed specifically for the application.
The bumper is made by vibration.
Welding of two injectionsmolded parts. Plastics-
Welding technology has become more and more important due to the emergence of high-tech.
The company says high-performance thermoplastic composites are expected to revolutionize assembly technology for aerospace applications.
The manual notes that recently, recyclability considerations make welding more attractive because, unlike the adhesive connection, no additional material is introduced in the Assembly.
Other types of welding used with thermoplastic materials include laser welding and resistance and induction welding.
When the second part absorbs light or laser radiation, laser welding passes through a plastic part, causing the interface to heat and melt.
Resistance welding utilizes resistance implants between welded surfaces to provide the heat required for welding joints.
Induction welding uses a coil to generate an AC magnetic field and sense current in the joint area.
The resistance of the material produces heat.
Ultrasonic welding unit the ultrasonic assembly uses the sound horn to convert the electric energy into the vibration generated by the transducer of mechanical motion.
The energy is passed through the part to the joint area, generating heat by rubbing to melt the plastic and form the adhesive.
Branson ultrasonic, a global leader in material connectivity and precision cleaning, has developed fully digital ultrasonic systems.
Branson\'s 2000 x system has 20, 30 and 40 kHz, with an increase in power output at all frequencies.
The flexibility and scope of these welding systems enable customers to select components and create assembly systems that meet specific needs, the company said. Self-Bench-
Popular units for single use
Hand-made station. Hand-
Handheld devices can be used to assemble large parts and hard-to-
Reach the joint area.
The assembly system with a separate closed power supply and actuator allows the separation of the Assembly.
All Branson products can be configured as automation to create a fully integrated production system.
The company also offers OEM components for automation, which has expanded its connection technology to include linear, track and programmable motion vibrationswelding; hot-plate; and spin-
Welding Products.
Branson Series 40 welding system is a kindcontained semi-
Automatic ultrasonic plastic
An assembly platform that emphasizes configurable and increases productivity.
It is capable of welding, inserting, forging or spot
Welding hot plastic.
The 40-series system can include multiple ultrasonic stations, and can also combine the ultrasonic system with other types of welders (such as Rotary welders) or other auxiliary operations (such as leak testing.
German manufacturer Herrmann ultrasonic has subsidiaries in the United StatesS.
China has developed advanced technology in the field of ultrasonic connection.
The company recently launched HiQ evolution ultrasonic welding machine, which has a fasttool-
Change features and other innovations to increase production, reduce downtime, and reduce energy consumption.
The system is available with 20-, 30-, and 35-
KHz digital generator with model 1200 to 6000 W. For clean-
The room environment provided by Herman ultrasound is Medialog, which is very suitable for medical use.
Equipment manufacturing and other applications with cleaning processing requirements.
The input air is filtered to a higher standard, the exhaust gas is collected and can be guided through the existing ventilation system.
The Medialog unit comes in two sizes: HS at 20 and 30 kHz and PS at 35 kHz.
Digital generator power up to 5000 watts.
Fast Data processing by Dukane
Manufactured the iQ series ultrasonic press system for welding thermoplastic plastics.
The company is ultrasonic, spin, laser, vibration and heat-
Flat welders, Hot Press, tools and software for OEM and commercial plastics-
Assembly market.
It is said that the iQ series ultrasonic printing machine provides the fastest data.
The processing rate in the industry is 0. 5-
Update speed MS due to company diversity
Core Processing Architecture.
System processing welding data--
Power, Energy, distance, force, frequency and time--
Twice the speed of the elderly
Dukane said the series of equipment has higher welding consistency and accuracy. [
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The IQ Series line has a pressure system of 40/30 kHz with low
Quality Precision sliding mechanism specially designed for exquisite and tight
Tolerance, small applications.
Plus, 20-
Dukane Super Ridge H-kHz printing machine available
High-precision frame support
Force application.
The production line is modular and configurable to meet the needs of users.
Control and basic (time only), to advanced (
Time, energy, distance, force and peak power)
Calibration and verification of medical applications.
The basic unit comes standard with double pressure.
The advanced unit has a force sensor and off-
The loop electronic pressure regulator, combined with the optional hydraulic speed control of Dukane, can accurately control the melting speed.
Sonics & Materials, Inc.
A manufacturer of equipment from hand to welding
Holding Units and benches-
Complete automation of model printing machines,
Line system, has its own characteristic in the field of ultrasonic welding technology.
Recent introductions include 20-and 40-kHz hand-
Handheld ultrasonic welding unit with digital
Time or constant
Control based on energy.
These tools are specially designed for welding, insertion and spot
Welding applications.
For easier operation, a pistol grip can be selected.
Other accessories include manual Press and plugin foot pedal.
Welding round part rotary welding is a technique for welding hot plastic parts using circular rotating motion and applying pressure.
One part is fixed in one fixture while the other rotates with it.
The heat generated by the friction between the two parts causes the plastic interface to melt and merge together, resulting in a strong seal.
Branson ultrasonic offers SW300 servo-driven spin-
Welding system for welding round jointsInterface part. The bench-
Top rotary welder with 6-
It is said that the inch touch screen operation interface provides servo
Accuracy of inner motor]+ or -]0. 1 [degrees].
SW300 can be configured for manual, semi-manual operations
Automatic and fully automatic mode.
The maximum force is 314 (142 kg).
Production bench-
Rotating welder on top to provide high torque for welding parts up to 25 inch (63. 5 cm)in diameter.
The company specializes in custom processing and can integrate welders into existing production lines.
They can also be set to run independently. The ToolTex SW-
The 750 servo rotary welding machine provides orientation within 0. 1 [degrees]
Up to 200 (90. 5 kg)
Clamping force.
It has digital touch functionscreen control.
Plastic assembly system (PAS)
New and used welding equipment, including servo
Drive rotary welding products, ultrasonic welders and hot assembly systems.
PAS model STS 2000 servo thermal system with new servo-
Precise control technology for thermal applications that require direct contact with heating tools.
The STS 2000 can be used as a stand-
Separate or automated equipment.
The PAS series provides the ability to run small and medium-sized enterprises
Large parts and applications requiring high precision and repeatability.
Laser welding technology is a non-contact, flexible connection technology that can generate dean, strong sealed welds with minimal thermal stress on the welded joints.
In this vibration, no particles are left in the welded jointflee technique.
High precision of laser welding, no tool wear, no welding consumables.
Stanmech Technologies develops plastics with partner Leister Process Technologies-
Manufacturing and welding equipment including customized laser equipment
Connect the system for the production environment. Four Novolas[TM]laser-
Welding systems that meet specific needs can be provided.
The basic system allows integration into the manufacturing system through its own process control.
Other models are OEM for advanced integration, WS (workstation)
Manual workstations for partial automation and maskwelding Micro for connecting thin and narrow parts.
The company provides a complete application lab to evaluate the laser of the customerwelding needs.
A recent development is Leister Weldplast $2 hands
Extruder, a compact device designed to produce up to 2. 5 kg (5. 5 lb)
An hourly extrusion used to connect a thermoplastic part.
It is characterized by 360 [degrees]
Rotating welding shoes are convenient for aerial work.
The company also offers hot-
Air manual tools, from lightweight hot jet and pad models to larger workpiece models such as diodes and Triac.
These tools are used to guide hot air at joint slots and thermoplastic welding rods.
LPKF, a German-based laser and electronics specialist, makes plastic laser welding systems using modular production systems.
Transmission laser welding is connected to thermoplastic parts with different absorption properties.
The laser penetrates through the top layer, which is transparent to the wavelength but is absorbed by the bottom layer, generating heat and causing the surface to bond with each other. LPKF\'s laser-
Welding production lines include:
Power and qr for manual operation-
Technology integration that seamlessly integrates with production lines.
Patented laser
Welding technology called Clearweld [R]
Developed by Gentex. and TWI, Ltd. , a UK-
Headquartered in industrial R & D Group.
Clearex\'s commercial Clearweld process uses special coatings and lasers-
Weldable resin additives that provide unique color and design flexibility in the welding of dear opaque plastic.
Clearweld is particularly suitable for medical pipes and equipment that may be contaminated due to the use of adhesives or particles generated by ultrasonic welding.
LPKF is a partner of Gentex global equipment manufacturers, integrators, material suppliers and a network of plastic processors.
Another partner is Branson ultrasound, which has developed a laser system dedicated to Clearweld processing designed to weld medical pipes without rotating medical pipes. Laser-
Innovative laser-assisted hybrid parts
The fraunhove Institute of Laser technology has developed an auxiliary process for connecting plastics and metals (ILT)
Aachen in GermanyThe patent-pending Liftec[R]
The connection process is heated by laser radiation through a plastic part to press the metal part on it.
When the plastic melts, apply mechanical pressure on the metal piece to push it into the plastic.
If a suitable geometry is designed in a metal part, a solid positive bond is formed after cooling.
Ceramics and temperature
Resistance plastics can also be used in this process.
Plastic expert Kamweld Technologies-
Hot welding products for industrial use
Air guns and plastic
Recently, the Fusion series of lightweight welders has been introduced, featuring digital control of accurate airflow temperature.
Four models in FW
There are 5 lines and all are equipped with an online air heater. The FW-5C and FW-
The 5D model is from
Contains units with internal air compressors.
Strong structural adhesives for adhesive plastics all manufacturers have advanced adhesives.
ITW Plexus is the leader in fastening, connection, sealing and coating technology, producing the patented Plexus [R]
Structural Adhesive for bonding thermoplastic, composite and metal.
Structural or performance adhesives are commonly used in loads
The application of bearings because they add strength to the products that are bonded.
ITW Plexus provides a guide for the bonding of plastics, composites and metals. (
See the sidebar on page 23. )[
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The latest product introduction includes three or two.
Partially structured acrylic, cured at room temperature, produces very strong but flexible bonds on composites prepared with little or no surface.
MA530, working hours of 30-
40 minutes, designed to fill a gap of up to 0. 70 inch (17. 8 mm). MA560-
1 long working hours (up to 70 min)
And fill the gaps up to 1. 00 inch (25. 4 mm).
The MA590 works for up to 105 minutes and is perfect for building large fiberglass boats.
The adhesive also provides excellent bonding for metals and other substrates, says Plexus.
Plexus offers a wide range of adhesive products including \"fiberglass fusion\" products.
These adhesives, unlike other adhesives, combine glass fiber reinforced plastic, composite materials, and almost all polyester resin and glue coats chemically.
The company notes that since they require little surface preparation, the assembly time can be reduced by 60%.
Plexus added that they produce such strong bonds that the substrate is delaminated before the bond fails.
These adhesives are said to have excellent flexibility, impact strength and ability to resist fuel, chemicals and water.
The company also provides Fusionmate [TM]
The adhesive distribution system for polypropylene adhesive is optimized.
Powered by 100 psi workshop air, the device provides continuous positive-
Displacement pump with exact volume ratio from 6:1 to 15:1.
The flow is output adjustable from 0. 1 to 1. 3 gallons/min (0. 38 to 4. 92 liters/min).
Adhesive noted that the independent chain drive for adhesives and activation pumps was designed for years of service.
The unique design removes the adhesive and activator independently.
Over the years, adhesive for bonded auto parts has been widely used in automotive applications, and with the progress of adhesive technology, its importance is increasing.
Dow Motor Co. , which produces adhesives for harsh automotive applications, reported that its adhesive technology is being applied in a wider range of applications, supporting OEMs in vehicles to improve safety and achieve overall weight reduction. Dow\'s Betamate[TM]crash-
Audi chose durable adhesive for adhesive bonding on A8, an innovative vehicle with aluminum body.
Betamate technology can be used to require high
Hot-plastic components of steel, aluminum, magnesium, composite materials, glass, hardware, decoration and performance bonding of alloys.
Structural Adhesives replace welds and mechanical fasteners when connecting various similar substrates and different substrates, eliminating fatigue and failure around solder joints and fasteners.
Dow says it will also cause corrosion to environmental conditions.
The company also produces Betaseal [TM]glass-
Dow pointed out that the adhesive system used to install automotive glass in the vehicle. IPS Corp.
Manufacturer of WeldOn [R]high-
Recently introduced acrylic structural adhesive for welding strength
On SS 1100, it is used for bonding thermoplastic, composite and metal substrates, including difficult-to-
Bonding materials such as nylon and galvanized metal.
Perfect for bonding plastic to metal
The working hours of the part adhesive range from 4 minutes to 17 minutes.
Widely used in transportation, ocean, construction and construction, product assembly, welding and other fields
The company says the structural adhesive needs little or no surface treatment.
Large bonding project Gurit is a developer and manufacturer of composite materials, offering a series of Spabond epoxy adhesives designed to make durable, high
Usually stronger strength joints than adhesive materials.
The series is available in a variety of formats and grades to meet different requirements, including Spabond 340LV
Performance adhesive for bonding large structures such as yacht hull and windturbine blades.
It is described as cost-
Effective system with good thermal and mechanical properties.
For large structures with uneven geometry on the surface of the substrate, Gurit provides Spabond 345 with a thick paste
Just like the consistency that can be applied without dents. Spabond 5-
Minutes epoxy adhesive system using fast-
Set-up technology for general bonding and repair of various materials.
In the absence of the use of traditional fixtures, the adhesive can be used as a \"spot welding\" system with other Spabond products.
Spabond adhesive has cartridges, barrels and barrels for machine mixing and distribution.
Adhesive for Dymax company
Production of various industrial adhesives, including UV-
Curing products and special adhesives such as Dymax UltraRed[TM]
Fluorescence 1162-M-
Adhesive for plastic-to-metal medical-
Device application.
Super patent
The red compound makes the adhesive low-
A strong \"black\" light in sharp contrast to many naturally fluorescent blue plastic substrates.
The color of the contrast helps with a visual inspection of the adhesive line.
The adhesive base materials include PC, stainless steel, glass, PVC and ABS. [
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Master Bond, manufacturer of high-
Performance adhesives, sealant, coatings, filling and packaging compounds, and dipping resins have announced the development of two new
It says that the partial epoxy adhesive system provides a very high thermal conductivity.
EP21AN is said to be an excellent electrical insulator that provides excellent adhesion to a wide range of substrates, including many plastics, metals, ceramics and glass.
Master Bond said the Bond showed excellent dimensional stability and had a very low shrinkage when curing. [
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Sensitive acrylic adhesive, said to be very suitable for lowsurface-
Energy plastics such as TPOs.
The product eliminates the need for prime or flame treatment of the TPO surface prior to adhesive application, reducing the time and cost associated with pre-treatment.
The test shows that the adhesive exhibits excellent adhesion and durability on TPOs and olefin alloys as well as powder
The company said it had painted surfaces.
Flexcon also offers a range of high
Performance Acrylic tape.
Evonik Cyro LLC, a professional acrylic product manufacturer, recently launched Acrifix [TM]
Special Adhesive (SBAs)
A new type of cement for thermoplastic plastics.
Specially used for bonding of [acrylic]TM]
Acrylic products, the series includes Acrifix 0190, the most versatile reactive SBA;
A satin Acrifix 0195
Finished product of active cement;
And Acrifix 0117, the only non-
The company says it has a presence in the North American market in the presence of A- chlorine solvent cement.
SBAs are usually used for museum displays, photo frames, exhibits, lighting and adhesive parts in aquariums.
For better bonding, proper bonding requires a clean surface with no oil, grease and other contaminants.
The medical and automotive industry relies on surface treatment to remove dust, grease, oil and molds from parts to improve adhesion.
The Enercon surface treatment system explains that clean solvents such as toluene, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and vinyl chloride can be used, but they leave a film residue when vaporizing, which will hinder
The products provided by the company are used for the treatment of plastics and other materials that increase adhesion in bonding, labeling, printing and painting, and extrusion and over-molding applications.
Enercon has recently launched a new product designed to etching, cleaning, activating, sanitizing and achieving a variety of difficultiesto-
Handle the surface of conductive and non-conductive materials. The Dyne-A-Mite[TM]
The IT elite has advanced blowing functions
Ion Plasma surface
Treatment techniques and real
Time plasma integrity monitoring system for all process variables.
The modular system can be upgraded with four surface treatment heads with fast connection/disconnection.
The device produces a concentrated blow-
Ion-discharged bombers repeatedly air-raid material surface belts
The rapid discharge of ions is said to be very effective in the treatment and cleaning of all types of thermoplastic and thermosolid polymers, elastomer, glass and even conductive surfaces.
Automatic adhesive laying sealing equipment Engineering Co. , Ltd.
A manufacturer of electricity meters
Hybrid distribution system for structural adhesives in the composite industry, providing robot integration, clothing-
Design and assembly of fluid and electrical lines, as well as complete beads
Path planning for customer work.
The company recently launched ServoFlo [TM]
608, high precision systemspeed, two-
Component allocation application.
The system adopts a new position displacement design, eliminating the normal reload period of the standard rod.
The displacement meter system, which allows the allocation of a large amount of material without reloading. The Servo-
Flo 608 also has dual servo
Drive the motor to achieve accurate control of the material ratio and use a variety of material formulations in the metering system.
The meter can be used as a stand-
As part of a complete turnkey automated distribution system.
The nerve cluster adhesive guide lists the brochure published by the adhesive strength ITW Plexus, the adhesive plastics, composites, and metals guide lists ten adhesive family acrylic, epoxy, Hot Melt Adhesive, acrylic, phenol, polyurethane, solvent cement and adhesive tape commonly referred to as structural adhesives.
The guidelines say that the following seven are the most commonly used;
It highlights their main features: * epoxy adhesives are the most widely used structural adhesives, longer than any engineering adhesive.
The epoxy bond has a very high shear strength and is usually rigid. The two-
The partial resin/hardening agent system can fill the small gap well and shrink very little.
* Acrylic adhesive can withstand more dirty and less-
Preparation surfaces usually related to metals.
They challenge epoxy at shear strength and provide flexible bonds with good peel and impact resistance. These two-
The adhesive for parts produces fast bonding.
* The acrylic adhesive known as Super Glue also provides extremely fast curing speed and is best suited for precise mounting surfaces.
Their prices are relatively low.
Viscosity fluid based on acrylic monomer, suitable for bonding small areas.
They have poor impact resistance and are susceptible to moisture and solvents.
* Oxygen-deficient adhesive is cured by hypoxia.
Based on acrylic polyester resin, they all have viscosity from thin liquid to sticky touch paste.
They have low adhesive strength and are not suitable for penetrating materials.
They don\'t fill in the blanks very well and may require primers. * Hot-
The melt adhesive reaches 80% of the adhesive strength in a few seconds and can be bonded to permeable and non-permeable materials.
They usually do not require careful surface preparation.
Hot Melt Adhesive is not sensitive to moisture and many solvents, but the adhesive softens at high temperatures.
* Acrylic adhesive provides high balance
Tensile, shear and peel strength plus impact resistance, stress, and impact capability over a wide temperature range. The two-
No surface preparation is required with plastic, metal and composite materials, and component reactive materials can be used.
They resist water and solvents and form a combination that is difficult to penetrate.
* Polyurethane adhesive, usually two
Components, known for their toughness and flexibility even at low temperatures.
Although uncured polyurethane is sensitive to moisture and temperature, they have considerable shear strength and excellent waterproof and moisture-proof properties.
Contact Branson ultrasoundP. O.
Box 1961 Danbury CT, 06813 US 1 203-796-0450 www.
Branson ultrasound
Dow Jones 1250 Harmon Road
Auburn Hills, MI 48362 USA 1 248-391-6300 www. automotive. dow.
Com Dukane, 2900 Dukane Drive St, Ultrasonic Department.
Charles, IL 60174 1 630-797-4900 www. dukcorp.
Dymax, USA
Torrington CT, 318 industrial Lane, 06790 United States 1 860-482-1010 www. dymax.
Energy industry CorporationO.
Box 773 Menomonee Falls, WI 53052 USA 1 262-255-6070 www. enerconind.
379 Interpace Parsippany, NJ 07054 US 1 800-631-5384 www. evonik.
Company name: Flexcon
01562 United States, MA 508 Spencer hole Industrial Park 1-885-8440 www. flexcon.
Institute of Laser Technology (ILT)
15 52074 Aachen Germany 49 241-8906-194 www. ilt. fraunhofer.
Degentex Corp. 324 Main St.
Simpson, PA 18407 US 1 570-282-3550 www. gentexcorp.
Com Gurit, Inc.
2019 SW 20 St.
Suite 234 Fort Lauderdale, FL 33315 1 954-423-9630 www. gurit.
Herrmann ultrasound
1261 Hatter batterlet, IL 60103 US 1 630-626-1626 www.
Ultrasound. com IPS Corp. Weld-
Adhesives Durham, NC 600 USA 1 27703-adhesive No. 919 Ellis Road598-2400 www. ipscorp.
30 condicott Street.
Danvers, MA 01923 United States 1 800-851-6692 www. itwplexus.
Kamweld Technologies, Inc.
02062, channel 90, MA 781 Norwood, United States-762-6922 www. kamweld.
Longsheng company
111 Dr. RIDC Park West
Pittsburgh, PA 15275 US 1 800-LANXESS www. lanxess.
1253 Hamilton Avenue Itasca, IL 60143 United States 1 630-760-1000 www. leisterusa.
Dr. Leveton, LPKF 12555 software, USA
Tualatin, or 97062 US 1 800 345-LPKF www. lpkfusa.
Master Kong bond company
154 Hobart St.
Hackensack 07601-201, New Jersey, United States of America343-8983 www. masterbond.
Us ct 06524 Bethany 19 plastic assembly system 1 203-393-0639 www. heatstaking.
Sabic, USA
2500 City West Avenue.
Suite 650 Houston, TX 77042 713 United States 1-532-4999 www. sabic.
Com sealing equipment & Engineering Co. , Ltd. P. O.
Box 701460 Plymouth, MI 48170 USA 1 734-459-8600 www.
Sealing equipment.
Music & Materials Limited
CT 06470 Newtown Hill Road 53, United States 1 303-270-4600 www. sonics.
Master Kong Technology Co. , Ltd.
Burlington, 944 Zelco Drive, L7L 4YE, Canada 1 888-438-6324 www. stanmech.
Com tools
Grove City, 6160 seed Road, OH 43123 USA 1 614-539-3222 www. tooltex. com TWI Ltd.
Cambridge CB21 6AL Great Abington, Galanta Park, England 44 (0)
1223 899000 www. twi. co.
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